The Widal test is one method that may be used to help make a presumptive diagnosis of enteric fever, also known as typhoid fever. Although the test is no longer commonly performed in the United States or other developed countries, it is still in use in many developing countries where enteric fever is endemic and limited resources require the use of rapid, affordable testing alternatives.
West Nile Virus Testing
West Nile virus (WNV) is an infection that is transmitted to humans primarily by mosquitoes that have bitten infected birds or other infected humans. Testing detects either the West Nile virus directly or antibodies produced in response to WNV infection in blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Tests for vitamin K levels are not widely available and are rarely ordered. They are not typically used to screen for or help diagnose vitamin K deficiencies because a lack of vitamin K is usually discovered when unexpected or excessive bleeding or easy bruising occurs. The primary test used to investigate the bleeding is a prothrombin time (PT).
Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is one of the four major lipoprotein particles. The other three are high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and chylomicrons. Each particle contains a mixture of cholesterol, triglyceride, and protein, but in varying amounts unique to each type of particle. LDL contains the highest amount of cholesterol. HDL contains the highest amount of protein. VLDL and chylomicrons contain the highest amount of triglyceride.
VAP (Vertical Auto Profile) is one of the brand names given to a commercial, proprietary method for testing lipoproteins in blood. It is possible to separate out the different sizes of lipoprotein molecules by density (through centrifugation), such as with the VAP test, or by size and electrical charge (through electrophoresis).
Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) is one of the metabolites of the catecholamines epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine. This test measures the amount of VMA that is excreted into the urine, typically over a 24-hour period, to detect excess catecholamine production.
Vancomycin is an antimicrobial drug that is used to treat serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Developed in the 1950s, vancomycin was originally prescribed primarily when organisms proved resistant to penicillin or when a person was allergic to penicillin.
A urinalysis is a group of chemical and microscopic tests. They detect the byproducts of normal and abnormal metabolism, cells, cellular fragments, and bacteria in urine. Urine is produced by the kidneys, two fist-sized organs located on either side of the spine at the bottom of the ribcage. The kidneys filter wastes out of the blood, help regulate the amount of water in the body, and conserve proteins, electrolytes, and other compounds that the body can reuse.
Tumor markers are substances, often proteins, that are produced by the cancer tissue itself or sometimes by the body in response to cancer growth. Because some of these substances can be detected in body samples such as blood, urine, and tissue, these markers may be used, along with other tests and procedures, to help detect and diagnose some types of cancer, predict and monitor a person's response to certain treatments, and detect recurrence.
The thyroid gland helps to regulate the rate at which the body uses energy. It is a small butterfly-shaped organ that lies flat against the windpipe in the throat and is composed primarily of very small, ball-shaped structures called follicles that produce and store thyroglobulin (Tg).
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Therapeutic drug monitoring is the measurement of specific drugs at timed intervals in order to maintain a relatively constant concentration of the medication in the bloodstream. Monitored drugs tend to have a narrow "therapeutic index," a ratio between the toxic and therapeutic doses of medications. For some drugs, maintaining this steady state is not as simple as giving a standard dose of medication
Testing can detect an infection with Trichomonas vaginalis, a microscopic, single cell (protozoan) parasite that is usually transmitted sexually, causing vaginal infections in women and urethral infections (urethritis) and prostatitis in men
Disclaimer: The information provided here should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. The information is provided solely for educational purpose and should not be considered a substitute for medical advice.